Supramolecular Modulation of Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via Bifunctional Halogen Bonding Revealed by Two-Dimensional 19F Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy
There has been an ongoing effort to overcome the limitations associated with the stability of hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells by using different organic agents as additives to the perovskite formulations. The functionality of organic additives has been predominantly limited to exploiting hydrogen-bonding interactions, while the relevant atomic-level binding modes remain elusive. Herein, we introduce a bifunctional supramolecular modulator, 1,2,4,5-tetrafluoro-3,6-diiodobenzene, which interacts with the surface of the triple-cation double-halide perovskite material via halogen bonding. We elucidate its binding mode using two-dimensional solid-state 19F NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. As a result, we demonstrate a stability enhancement of the perovskite solar cells upon supramolecular modulation, without compromising the photovoltaic performances.