Local Crystal Misorientation Influences Non-radiative Recombination in Halide Perovskites
We use ultrasensitive electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to map the local crystal orientations, grains, and grain boundaries in CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI) perovskite thin films. Although the true grain structure is broadly consistent with the morphology visible in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the inverse pole figure maps taken with EBSD reveal grain structure and internal misorientation that is otherwise hidden. Local crystal misorientation is consistent with the presence of local strain, which varies from one grain to the next. We acquire co-aligned confocal optical photoluminescence (PL) microscopy images on the same MAPI samples used for EBSD. We correlate optical and EBSD data, showing that PL is anticorrelated with the local grain orientation spread, suggesting that grains with higher degrees of crystalline orientational heterogeneity (local strain) exhibit more non-radiative recombination. We find that larger grains tend to have larger grain orientation spread, consistent with higher degrees of strain and non-radiative recombination.