Ion Exchange Lithography: Localized Ion Exchange Reactions for Spatial Patterning of Perovskite Semiconductors and Insulators
Patterning materials with different properties in a single film is a fundamental challenge and essential for the development of next‐generation (opto)electronic functional components. This work introduces the concept of ion exchange lithography and demonstrates spatially controlled patterning of electrically insulating films and semiconductors with tunable optoelectronic properties. In ion exchange lithography, a reactive nanoparticle “canvas” is locally converted by printing ion exchange “inks.” To demonstrate the proof of principle, a canvas of insulating nanoporous lead carbonate is spatioselectively converted into semiconducting lead halide perovskites by contact printing an ion exchange precursor ink of methylammonium and formamidinium halides. By selecting the composition of the ink, the photoluminescence wavelength of the perovskite semiconductors is tunable over the entire visible spectrum. A broad palette of conversion inks can be applied on the reactive film by printing with customizable stamp designs, spray‐painting with stencils, and painting with a brush to inscribe well‐defined patterns with tunable optoelectronic properties in the same canvas. Moreover, the optoelectronic properties of the converted canvas are exploited to fabricate a green light‐emitting diode (LED), demonstrating the functionality potential of ion exchange lithography.