Extreme-Ultraviolet Shaping and Imaging by High-Harmonic Generation from Nanostructured Silica
Coherent extreme-ultraviolet pulses from high-harmonic generation have ample applications in attosecond science, lensless imaging, and industrial metrology. However, tailoring complex spatial amplitude, phase, and polarization properties of extreme-ultraviolet pulses is made nontrivial by the lack of efficient optical elements. Here, we have overcome this limitation through nanoengineered solid samples, which enable direct control over amplitude and phase patterns of nonlinearly generated extreme-ultraviolet pulses. We demonstrate experimental configurations and emitting structures that yield spatially patterned beam profiles, increased conversion efficiencies, and tailored polarization states. Furthermore, we use the emitted patterns to reconstruct height profiles, probe the near-field confinement in nanostructures below the diffraction limit of the fundamental radiation, and to image complex structures through coherent diffractive emission from these structures. Our results pave the way for introducing sub-fundamental-wavelength resolution imaging, direct manipulation of beams through nanoengineered samples, and metrology of nanostructures into the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range.