A Python Toolbox for Unbiased Statistical Analysis of Fluorescence Intermittency of Multilevel Emitters
We report on a Python toolbox for unbiased statistical analysis of fluorescence intermittency properties of single emitters. Intermittency, that is, step-wise temporal variations in the instantaneous emission intensity and fluorescence decay rate properties, is common to organic fluorophores, II–VI quantum dots, and perovskite quantum dots alike. Unbiased statistical analysis of intermittency switching time distributions, involved levels, and lifetimes are important to avoid interpretation artifacts. This work provides an implementation of Bayesian changepoint analysis and level clustering applicable to time-tagged single-photon detection data of single emitters that can be applied to real experimental data and as a tool to verify the ramifications of hypothesized mechanistic intermittency models. We provide a detailed Monte Carlo analysis to illustrate these statistics tools and to benchmark the extent to which conclusions can be drawn on the photophysics of highly complex systems, such as perovskite quantum dots that switch between a plethora of states instead of just two.