Nanoscale spatial limitations of large-area substrate conformal imprint lithography
We demonstrate a soft-imprint nanofabrication technique offering nanometer resolution over an area as large as a 150 mm diameter wafer. It makes use of a composite imprint stamp composed of a quaternary siloxane-modified poly-di-methyl-siloxane patterned rubber layer with a relatively high Young’s modulus that is laminated on a thin glass support. The in-plane stiffness of the stamp avoids pattern deformation over large areas, while out-of-plane flexibility allows conformal contact to be made over the entire substrate area. The stamp is used in conjunction with a novel tetra-methyl-ortho-siloxane/methyl-tri-methoxy-siloxane sol-gel imprint resist material developed to replicate nanoscale features in rigid silica at room temperature. We demonstrate better than 10 nm resolution in imprinted line gratings and individual pillars with aspect ratio as high as 5:1. Gaps as small as 6 nm can be reproduced. The patterns can be used as an etch mask to pattern 150 mm diameter silicon and quartz substrates while maintaining sub-10 nm resolution.