Pathways toWards 30% Efficient Single‐Junction Perovskite Solar Cells and the Role of Mobile Ions
Perovskite semiconductors have demonstrated outstanding external luminescence quantum yields, enabling high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). However, the precise conditions to advance to an efficiency regime above monocrystalline silicon cells are not well understood. Herein, a simulation model that describes efficient p–i–n-type perovskite solar cells well and a range of different experiments is established. Then, important device and material parameters are studied and it is found that an efficiency regime of 30% can be unlocked by optimizing the built-in voltage across the perovskite layer using either highly doped (1019 cm−3) transport layers (TLs), doped interlayers or ultrathin self-assembled monolayers. Importantly, only parameters that have been reported in recent literature are considered, that is, a bulk lifetime of 10 μs, interfacial recombination velocities of 10 cm s−1, a perovskite bandgap ( gap) of 1.5 eV, and an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 95%. A maximum efficiency of 31% is predicted for a bandgap of 1.4 eV. Finally, it is demonstrated that the relatively high mobile ion density does not represent a significant barrier to reach this efficiency regime. The results of this study suggest continuous PCE improvements until perovskites may become the most efficient single-junction solar cell technology in the near future.